Volume 6, Issue 4 (Winter 2018)                   3dj 2018, 6(4): 103-114 | Back to browse issues page

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Hashemipour M A, Abdi F, Teymori M, Zeraat Pisheh M. Effects of Cigarette Smoke, Alcohol, Vitamin E and Vitamin C on Oral Mucosa and Salivary Peroxides Enzyme in Rats. 3dj. 2018; 6 (4) :103-114
URL: http://3dj.gums.ac.ir/article-1-292-en.html
1- DDS, Oral and Dental Diseases Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. , m_s_hashemipour@yahoo.com
2- Dentist, Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
3- Dental Student, Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
Abstract:   (294 Views)
Introduction: According to studies, high intake of fruits and vegetables are associated with reduced cancer incidence and mortality. The high levels of antioxidants in fruits and vegetables are believed to contribute in cancer prevention, possibly by inhibiting oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cigarette smoke, alcohol and vitamin E and vitamin C on oral mucosa and salivary peroxides in rats.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 128 rats in 16 groups were investigated. Cigarette-smoke-exposed rats were intermittently housed in an animal chamber with whole-body exposure to cigarette smoke until they were killed after 60 days. Their whole saliva was collected 1 day before exposure to cigarette smoke and then 15, 30, 45, and 60 days after the start of cigarette smoke exposure. The rats’ parotid salivary glands and posterior part of tongue were extracted on day 60. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA, Student t test, and Welch test in SPSS v.17.
Results: The increase in body weight of the cigarette smoke and alcohol exposed rats was less than that of the control rats. The peroxidase activities and total protein content in the saliva were significantly lower in cigarette smoke and alcohol exposed rats than those in control rats. Histological examination of the salivary glands of cigarette smoke and alcohol exposed rats showed vacuolar degeneration, vasodilation, and hyperemia. Also, histological examination of the exposed rats’ posterior part of the tongue to cigarette smoke and alcohol use showed changes from mild to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. The vitamin E and C seemed to increase body weight and peroxides activities and total protein content in the saliva among smokers and alcohol use rats.
Conclusion: The study results suggest that cigarette smoke exposure has adverse impacts on salivary composition and salivary glands, which could harm the oral environment. Also, the results of this study showed that vitamin E and C both have some preventive effects against the harmful consequences of smoking and alcohol use. Furthermore, the beneficial effect of vitamin E was more than that of Vitamin C. 
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Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Surgery
Received: 2017/08/20 | Accepted: 2017/12/10 | Published: 2018/01/1

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